GURU TEG BAHADUR JI
At the time of the terrestrial exit of Guru Harkrishan Ji , his disciples asked him, "O your Highness, whom shall we regard the Guru after you?" The Guru mused over and reflected, "Baba Teg Bahadur Ji , who now lives in the village called Bakala, although he does not pay much heed to the affairs of the world, still I do not see any one except him who is fit for the Guruship." Thus placing his thoughts on Baba Teg Bahadur, the Guru placed the customary coconut shell and five paise on the ground and having paid obeisance to him, he left his frail body.
In the village Bakala there were many of Guru Har Gobind Jiís relations, and his son, Teg Bahadur, after many wanderings and a long sojourn at Patna, on the river Ganga, had taken up his residence at the same place. He, however, had to encounter the most hostile opposition from his nephew, Ram Rai, who remained at Delhi and endeavoured by every art and intrigue to affect Guru Teg Bahadurís ruin.
Guru Teg Bahadur Ji was the 9th Guru in succession whose abode was at the city of Patna. After being ordained as the Guru, he shifted to Kiratpur Sahib. But finding the atmosphere full of intrigue, conspiracy and craftiness, the Guru purchased land nearby and founded a new town Anandpur --the abode of bliss. A large number of Sikhs came from far and near to settle in Anandpur Sahib. But owing to multifarious obligations, the Guru had to frequently travel in different parts of the country: Delhi, Patna, Assam etc. At Patna Guru Ji was blessed with a son whom he named Gobind Rai. After a prolonged stay at Patna, He returned to Anandpur. But the situation in Punjab was deteriorating rapidly.
Being a fanatic to the core, Aurangzeb resolved to convert India into a purely Muslim state and to eliminate Hinduism altogether. Howsoever illogical, the King somehow felt convinced that by conversion, he could redeem the Hindus from their Ďaccursedí religion. He wanted the country to be the abode only of Muslims. He thus used all conceivable means to achieve his evil objective. When allurements or persuasions failed, he threatened Hindus of dire consequences. Hindu temples were defiled and razed to ground and mosques were erected instead. The Hindu idols were desecrated and destroyed. The cruelty of Aurangzeb expanded everywhere in the country.
When his reign of terror descended on Kashmir, the Kashmiri Brahmins started fleeting from the province. Some took pilgrimage to Amarnath to seek intervention of the divine deity. One Pandit Kirpa Ram dreamt Guru Teg Bahadur as a saviour. Alongwith a large group, Pandit Kirpa Ram reached Anandpur Sahib and narrated the miserable plight of the Kashmiri Pandits. He was distressed and grieved to know the woeful and miserable conditions of the Pandits. Finding the Guru utterly sad and gloomy, Gobind, who was not even nine yet, inquired the cause of the Guruís sadness. The Guru replied that there was an immediate need of a holy soul to sacrifice his life. The child innocently remarked that there could be no holier person than that of the Guru himself. It appeared to the Guru that it was a divine call. He took no time to firmly resolve and asked the Brahmins to inform their Governor to first convert Guru Teg Bahadur and then they all would willingly embrace Islam.
The frenzied and fanatical Aurangzeb had already an ingrained prejudice against the Sikhs, particularly Guru Teg Bahadur. He hated the Guru being addressed as Sachcha Padshah or the true king implying thereby that Aurangzeb was a false and fake king. The king also despised the word Bahadur, which means valorous, against the Guru. He was thus adamant to exterminate Sikhism altogether.
The king therefore felt that to fulfil the condition of the Kashmiri Brahmins was perhaps the easiest of the things. Guru Ji was summoned and asked to embrace Islam otherwise he could be given the severest of torture leading to his death. When all persuasions and temptations failed, the Guru was threatened to torment and death. The Guruís close followers Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Dyala and Bhai Sati Das who accompanied the Guru were inhumanly tortured and put to death. Bhai Mati Das was sawed alive into two from head to loins. Bhai Dyala was forced to sit in a boiling cauldron. He was roasted alive. Bhai Sati Das was enveloped in a cotton pad and set on fire alive like a torch.
All this happened before the very eyes of the Guru, but Guru Ji did not flinch. Rather these inhuman brutalities and insufferable tortures on the devoted disciples made Guru Ji all the more firm, tough, inflexible and unyielding in his resolve not to submit to the king. The Guru could vividly foresee the warrior and marshal race emerging out of the holocaust with all the more glitter and shine.
Under the orders of the furious king Guru Ji was beheaded on 11th November 1675 at Chandni Chowk under the public gaze. It was further ordered that if anybody would touch the dead body of the Guru, he would meet the same fate. It is said that immediately after the Guru was beheaded, there was an unprecedented and blinding sandstorm in Delhi. Under such a cover Bhai Jaita, a devout of the Guru, picked up the Guruís sacred head and rushed to Anandpur Sahib. Bhai Lakhi Shah, another disciple of the Guru, befooling the Emperorís constabulary took the remaining body of the Guru in his cart and dashed to his village house. Duping the guards, he set his house with all his belongings intact on fire so that the sacred body of the Guru could be cremated without detection. On this very site now exist Gurdwara Rakab Ganj. The place where the revered Guru was beheaded has become a sacred place as Gurdwara Sis Ganj.
Guru Teg Bahadur Jiís martyrdom is rare and unique in world history. He was a peace-loving soul but he rose to the occasion when ardent principles and faith was involved. He preferred death to compromising. It is said that the Guru offered to show the king a miracle whereby no sword would be able to sever his head. He wrote some words on a slip of paper and tied it around his neck with a piece of string. When the executioner blew off the head of the Guru, the message on the paper was: ĎSis diya, pur sirr na diyaí, meaning that he had given his head, but not his secret.
It was a doomís day not only for Aurangzeb but also for the Mughal Empire. The devilís dance enjoyed by the demons was transient and fleeting. To the Sikhs it was a declaration of war, a culmination point in the Sikh relation with the Mughals. The Guruís execution ablazed the hearts of the entire community. Any reconciliation with the Mughals was now out of question. Even the martyrdom of Guru Arjun Dev Ji was not forgotten. The brutal beheading of Guru Teg Bahadur stirred and shivered the conscience of all and incensed and infuriated the Sikhs in particular.
The history of the Sikhs, after the martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur Ji assumed an altogether new aspect. The marshal community swore eternal war with the cruel and haughty Mughals.
Name: Guru Teg Bahadur Ji
Date of Advent/Birth: 04/1621
Place of Birth: Guru Ka Mahal (Amritsar)
Fatherís Name: Guru Hargobind Ji (Sodhi Ram)
Motherís Name: Mata Nanki
Mahal (Wife): Mata Gujri from Kartarpur Doaba
DevanSons: Guru Gobind Singh Ji
Date of Guru Gaddi: March 30, 1664
Date of Eternal Rest: Nov 11, 1675
Place of Eternal Rest: Martyrred at Chandni Chowk, Delhi
Age: 54 years
Compositions:Guru Teg Bahadur Ji composed 116 shabads in 15 ragas.
City founded: Anandpur Sahib